The world’s oldest structures give information on the origins of civilization. They also help us comprehend human cognition in the past and how it has evolved. Constructing buildings in ancient times was a very tough task as there was no transportation and the crafting of materials as well as procuring them was a hectic process. This list sheds light on the oldest structures ever built in the world.
Here are the top 10 oldest buildings in the world.
Göbekli Tepe, also known as Girê Mirazan or Xirabreşkê, is a Neolithic archaeological site in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey, near the city of Anlurfa. [Source: Wiki]
The site, which dates to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, between about 9500 and 8000 BCE, consists of a collection of huge circular buildings supported by massive stone pillars — the world’s earliest known megaliths.
Many of these pillars are highly painted with abstract human characteristics, clothes, and reliefs of wild animals, offering archaeologists rare insights into prehistoric religion and iconography. It is situated in southern Turkey. The tell has two eras of usage, which site discoverer and excavator Klaus Schmidt believes date back to the 10th–8th millennia BCE and are of a social or ceremonial character. The structure is 300 m in diameter and 15 m high.
Tower of Jericho
The Tower of Jericho is a 28-foot-tall stone tower erected circa 8000 BCE during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A era. It is one of humanity’s first stone monuments.
John Garstang uncovered the Wall of Jericho during excavations from 1930 to 1936, which he thought were those recorded in the Book of Joshua in the Bible and dated to approximately 1400 BCE. Kathleen Kenyon found the tower erected against the town wall during excavations in the trench I between 1952 and 1958.
Kenyon offered evidence that these structures were part of an early proto-city and dated far older, to the Neolithic, the most recent period of the Stone Age. The tower emphasizes the significance of Jericho in understanding settlement patterns during the Sultanian period in the Southern Levant.
Mehrgarh is a Neolithic archaeological site in Pakistan that dates from around 7000 BCE to around 2500/2000 BCE and is located in the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan. It lies near the Bolan Pass, west of the Indus River, and between the contemporary Pakistani towns of Quetta, Kalat, and Sibi.
An archaeological team led by French researchers Jean-François Jarrige and his wife, Catherine Jarrige, found the site in 1974. Between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000, Mehrgarh was excavated constantly.
Archaeological material was discovered in six mounds, and around 32,000 objects were gathered from the site. The first community at Mehrgarh was a modest agricultural village that existed between 7000 and 5500 BCE and was located in the northeast corner of the 495-acre site.
The Cairn of Barnenez is a Neolithic monument in northern Finistère, Brittany, near Plouezoc’h on the Kernéléhen peninsula (France). It is from the early Neolithic period, around 4800 BC. It is one of Europe’s earliest megalithic monuments, along with the Tumulus of Bougon and Locmariaquer megaliths in Great West France, and one of the world’s oldest man-made structures.
It’s also noteworthy for the existence of megalithic art. It is located in northern Finistère and has been largely repaired. It should have been called ‘The Prehistoric Parthenon,’ according to André Malraux. The construction is 72 meters (236 feet) long, 25 meters (82 feet) broad, and more than 8 meters (26 feet) tall.
Tumulus of Bougon
The Tumulus of Bougon, also known as the Necropolis of Bougon, is a collection of five Neolithic barrows found in Bougon, between Exoudon and Pamproux in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France.
Their discovery in 1840 piqued the scientific community’s curiosity. In order to conserve the antiquities, the department of Deux-Sèvres purchased the land in 1873. In the late 1960s, excavations were restarted. This ancient monument’s earliest constructions date back to 4800 BC.
The tumulus was constructed around the fifth millennium BC.
The Saint-Michel tumulus is a 125-meter (410-foot) long, 50-metre (160-foot) broad, and 10-meter (33-foot) high earth and stone mound. In 1862, archaeologists discovered a central vault holding distinguished burial furnishings such as axes, pearls, flint tools, and sillimanite.
Since 1889, it has been designated as a “Monument Historique” (national historic site).
Around 1900, archaeologist Zacharie Le Rouzic dug the Saint-Michel tumulus again and unearthed a second dolmen and fifteen small stone boxes, revealing the monument’s complexity.
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Uruk, also known as Warka or Warkah, was an ancient Sumerian city located east of the current course of the Euphrates River on the dried-up old Euphrates channel 30 kilometers (19 miles) east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthanna, Iraq.
Uruk is the Uruk period’s type site. Uruk was a key figure in Sumer’s early urbanization in the mid-4th millennium BC. By the end of the Uruk period, about 3100 BC, the city may have had 40,000 citizens, with 80,000-90,000 people living in its surroundings, making it the world’s biggest urban area at the time.
According to the Sumerian King List chronology, the mythical king Gilgamesh reigned Uruk in the 27th century BC. The city fell out of favor in the context of Babylonia’s war against Elam circa 2000 BC, although it remained inhabited during the Seleucid (312–63 BC) and Parthian (227 BC to 224 AD) eras until it was eventually abandoned sometime before or after the Islamic invasion of 633–638.
William Kennett Loftus visited Uruk in 1849 and identified it as “Erech,” also known as “the second city of Nimrod,” and oversaw the initial excavations from 1850 to 1854.
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Monte d’Accoddi is a Neolithic archaeological site in northern Sardinia, in the Sassari area. The site consists of a huge elevated stone platform that was formerly supposed to be an altar. It was built by the Ozieri civilization or earlier, with the earliest pieces dating back to roughly 4,000–3,650 BC.
The site was discovered in 1954 on a Segni family property. The original building, which had a base of 27 m by 27 m and presumably reached a height of 5.5 m, was created by the Ozieri civilization or earlier about 4,000–3,650 BC.
It culminated in a platform of 12.5 m by 7.2 m in size, accessible by a ramp. Because no chambers or entrances to the mound have been discovered, it is assumed that it was an altar, temple, or step pyramid. Because its square plan corresponds to the cardinal points of the compass, it might have also acted as an observing device.
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La Hougue Bie
La Hougue Bie is a historic site in the parish of Grouville, Jersey, including a museum. The image of La Hougue Bie is on the Jersey 1 pound note issued in 2010.
The site consists of a tunnel chamber 18.6 meters long and a 12.2-meter high earth mound. The Société Jersiaise explored the site for the first time in 1925. Fragments of twenty vase supports were discovered, as well as the dispersed remains of at least eight people. Grave goods, primarily ceramics, were also on display.
La Hougue Bie is a Neolithic ceremonial site that was active between 4000 and 3500 BC. It is one of the largest and best-maintained passage tombs in Western Europe, as well as the most spectacular and well-preserved monument of the Armorican Passage Grave group.
Two medieval chapels, one from the 12th century and one from the 16th century, stand atop the hill. This building complex has seen several changes during its history, including being swallowed for a time by the Prince’s Tower.
During WWII, it served as a major lookout point, and an underground command bunker was erected in the mound and neighboring areas.
This building is available to the public and holds an exhibition honoring the workers from all over Europe who were compelled to build Jersey’s defenses during the German occupation.
Knap of Howar
The Knap of Howar, located on the Orkney island of Papa Westray, is a Neolithic farmhouse that may be the earliest remaining stone building in Northern Europe. Radiocarbon dating indicates that it was occupied from 3700 BC to 2800 BC, which is earlier than the identical dwellings at the Skara Brae settlement on the Orkney Mainland.
The farmhouse is made up of two adjacent rounded rectangular thick-walled structures with extremely low doors facing the sea. A low hallway connects the bigger and older structure to the smaller building, which has been interpreted as a workshop or a second dwelling.
The walls are still standing to an eaves height of 1.6 meters (5 ft 3 in), and the stone furniture is still in place, creating a realistic image of life in the home. Fireplaces, partition screens, beds, and storage shelves are mostly undamaged and post holes suggest the roof structure have been discovered.
The evidence from the middens indicates that the occupants kept cattle, sheep, and pigs, cultivated barley and wheat, gathered shellfish, and fished for species that must be line caught using boats.
Top 10 Most Powerful People In The World
Usually, elected leaders from politics exercise the most power. However, outside politics also there are many influential leaders from the field of religion, Innovation, Business, Social media, and entertainment.
Because of the huge following and cult, these people are looked up to as opinion shapers and influencers.
Here are the top 10 most powerful people in the world.
Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician who has served as the People’s Republic of China’s president since 2013. He has been seen as the most powerful person in the world, even though the Western world regards him as a tyrant or authoritarian leader, citing increased mass surveillance, a decrease in human rights, and censorship of news, the Internet, and events.
He was General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission before becoming President of China. In 1953, he was born in Beijing as the second son of a Chinese Communist veteran, Xi Zhongxun. Tsinghua University is where Xi studied Chemical Engineering.
To maintain a solid hold on the governing party, Xi removed presidential term limits in China in 2018 through a series of constitutional modifications.
Xi has strengthened state control over the Chinese economy while also bolstering the country’s private sector. He is a hardliner when it comes to Chinese security matters, as well as in international affairs, where he is growing his influence in South Africa and Europe. On the international scene, he portrays China as more forceful and patriotic.
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Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, is the world’s second most powerful person. He is a former intelligence officer who has been Russia’s president since 2012.
He served as Russia’s Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000, and again from 2008 to 2012. Putin was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and earned a law degree from Leningrad State University in 1975. Putin spent 16 years as a KGB foreign intelligence officer, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before entering politics.
Russia has seen democratic backsliding under Putin’s rule. Many analysts do not consider Russia to be a democratic state because of restrictions on free speech, the imprisonment of political opponents, purges, restrictions on press freedom, and the lack of free and fair elections. Putin modified the law to allow him to compete for reelection in 2021.
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Joe Biden is the current Vice President of the United States of America and one of the world’s most prominent politicians. In 2020, he will succeed Donald Trump as the 46th President of the United States.
From 1973 through 2009, he was the Democratic Party’s 47th vice president, representing Delaware as a senator. He is the country’s oldest elected president and the first to have a female and African/Asian-American vice president, Kamala Harris.
In his first two days as president, Biden issued 17 executive orders, most of which were geared to reversing most of Trump’s foreign policies, particularly those concerning immigration and climate change.
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Angela Merkel is a German politician who has been the country’s chancellor since 2005, making her the world’s most powerful woman. Before becoming chancellor, she was the head of the opposition from 2002 until 2005. Merkel was the Christian Democratic Union’s leader from 2000 to 2018.
She is Germany’s first female chancellor and is largely regarded as the de facto head of the European Union. Merkel was born in Hamburg, West Germany at the time.
Merkel completed her studies at Karl Marx University in Leipzig from 1973 to 1978, where she majored in physics. Her thesis in quantum chemistry earned her a Ph.D. She worked as a researcher for three years before entering politics, publishing several publications.
The collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 was a watershed moment in her political career, as she joined a new party called Democratic Awakening, which ultimately merged with the East German Christian Democratic Union. Merkel temporarily served as the deputy spokesperson for East Germany’s first democratically elected government.
Jeff Bezos is the first American entrepreneur to be named on the list of the world’s most influential people in 2021. He is the founder and CEO of Amazon, a worldwide technology firm. According to Forbes, as of June 2021, his estimated net worth is more than $200 billion, making him the world’s richest and most powerful person.
Mr. Bezos attended Princeton University and majored in electrical engineering and computer science. Before founding Amazon in 1994, he worked on Wall Street for over eight years in several capacities.
Amazon began as an online bookshop and has now expanded to include a wide range of e-commerce items and services such as cloud computing, video/audio streaming, and artificial intelligence.
With $400 billion in revenues, it is currently the world’s largest online sales corporation. Due to his passion for space travel, Bezos launched the suborbital spaceflight services firm Blue Origin in the year 2000.
Pope Francis is the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the ruler of Vatican City State. He is one of the most popular world leaders, with supporters from all around the world. He is the first pope who belongs to the Society of Jesus.
He was born in Argentina and worked as a bouncer and janitor throughout his youth. He eventually received pharmaceutical training to become a chemist and worked as a technician in a food science laboratory.
After recuperating from a terrible illness, he was inspired to join the Society of Jesus and became a priest 11 years later. He was then appointed Archbishop and eventually made a cardinal.
Bill Gates is a computer programmer and entrepreneur from the United States who cofounded Microsoft Corporation, the world’s largest personal computer software firm. Bill Gates, the American business billionaire, has several interests outside of computers.
He is also an author, landowner, and philanthropist, with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the world’s biggest private charity, carrying out various charitable activities.
Gates’ estimated net worth is $145.3 billion as of 2021, and he wrote his first computer software application when he was 13 years old. He was a Harvard University dropout who held several roles in the corporation, including the chairman, CEO, president, and chief software architect.
Gates along with his wife Melinda launched the William H. Gates Foundation in 1994 which was later renamed the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 1999 to fund global health programs.
In 2010, The Giving Pledge was founded by Gates and Warren Buffett where they and other billionaires pledge to give a minimum of 50% of their wealth to Philanthropy.
Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud
Mohammed bin Salman, popularly known as MBS, is a Saudi Arabia politician who serves as the country’s deputy prime minister as well as the crown prince of Saudi Arabia.
He is also the Chairman of the Council for Economic and Development Affairs, the Chairman of the Council for Political and Security Affairs, and the Defense Minister.
MBS is frequently referred to as the power behind his father, King Salman’s, throne. In 2017, King Salman removed his nephew Muhammad bin Nayef from the post of the crown prince and selected MBS in his stead.
MBS was successful in implementing numerous major internal changes, including rules limiting religious police powers, lifting the prohibition on female drivers, and weakening the male-guardianship system.
Bin Salman rules an authoritarian regime in Saudi Arabia, and his tenure has been marred by numerous controversies, including an increase in alleged cases of torture of human rights activists, his relationship with Donald Trump, the escalation of the Qatar diplomatic crisis, the phone hack against Jeff Bezos, and the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, a critic of MBS.
Narendra Modi is the current and fourteenth Prime Minister of India, the world’s biggest democracy. As a result, he is the world’s most popular prime minister. From 2001 until 2014, he served as the state of Gujarat’s chief minister. He is a member of the Uttar Pradesh legislature representing the Varanasi seat.
He belongs to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the world’s largest political party in terms of primary membership. He is a registered member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and a member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) (RSS).
Modi was born in the tiny hamlet of Vadnagar in northeastern Gujarat in 1950. He spent two years traveling over India after finishing high school, visiting various religious sites.
Modi joined the RSS when he was eight years old. In 1971, he began working for the RSS. In 1985, the RSS sent him to the BJP, where he rose through the ranks to become general secretary.
Modi was the party’s prime ministerial candidate in the 2014 general election, and he won a landslide win with 282 seats and a large majority in Lok Sabha, India’s lower house of parliament. Modi was re-elected to a second term in 2019 with 303 seats.
Google needs no introduction in the world of technology, and Larry Page and Sergey Brin are Google’s co-founders. Larry is a computer scientist and online entrepreneur from the United States. He served as Google’s CEO for four years, from 1997 to 2001, when he stepped down.
He was re-appointed as Google’s CEO from 2011 to 2015, before resigning to become CEO of Alphabet Inc, Google’s parent company. He maintained the position till 2019, after which he joined the Alphabet board of directors.
With an estimated net worth of $112.5 Billion, Page is the sixth wealthiest person globally. He played a significant role in creating Google’s search ranking algorithm.
Born in 1973 in Michigan, Page holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Computer Engineering from the University of Michigan and a Master of Science from Stanford University. He also has a Ph.D. in Computer Science.
Top 10 UNESCO World Heritage Sites list by Country
There are 1,153 UNESCO World Heritage Sites dabbed across the globe and something we regularly research while arranging impending excursions is which nations have the biggest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites on the planet!
With 58 locales Italy accepts the crown as the country with the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Until July 2021, it had an equivalent number of site to China (both had 55 UNESCO World Heritage Sites) yet Italy had an extra three locales and China one site granted during the gathering of the World Heritage Committee.
Europe rules in the best 10 UNESCO nations with an amazing 226 locales across Italy, Germany, Spain, France and the UK. So here are the top 10 UNESCO World Heritage Sites list by Country!
Iran : 26 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
With the expansion of two new UNESCO destinations, Iran has assumed control over the tenth spot having imparted it to the United States as of not long ago. It has 24 social and 2 regular UNESCO World Heritage destinations.
Iran was granted two new destinations in the 2021 UNESCO postings. The Trans-Iranian Railway in Iran was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in July 2021. It interfaces the Caspian Sea in the upper east with the Persian Gulf. The social scene of the Hawraman/Uramanat is remote and rocky and is demonstration of the customary culture of the Hawrami public.
UNESCO site most need to visit in Iran: Soltaniyeh and Bam in Iran
Russia: 29 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Russia is number 9 with 29 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Its backwoods, mountains, volcanoes and lakes mean it has the fourth largest number of normal locales on the planet with 11 regular destinations and its perplexing history has brought about 18 captivating social sights.
UNESCO site need to visit the most in Russia: Western Caucasus, Wrangel Island and the Kremlin and Red Square in Moscow.
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UK: 34 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
The UK has a noteworthy 34 UNESCO World Heritage Sites with 31 situated on the central area and 3 in its abroad domains. The UK is home to probably the hardest to arrive at UNESCOs – Gough and Inaccessible Islands are essential for the Tristian a Cunha archipelago, the most distant archipelago on the planet. Henderson Island is essential for the Pitcairn Islands in the South Pacific and is remote, just open by boat and requires express consent from the Pitcairn Island Council to visit.
the UK had two destinations recorded and one site eliminated from the UNESCO World Heritage list in July 2021.
It was remembered for the new UNESCO posting, the incredible spa towns of Europe, with Austria, Belgium, Czechia, France, Germany and Italy. The UK is incorporated for the advancement of Bath around its regular mineral water springs. Liverpool lost its UNESCO World Heritage status. The Slate Landscape of Northwest Wales was the second UNESCO to be added and delineates the change that modern record quarrying and mining achieved in the country climate. Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City, was eliminated from the UNESCO list because of what was portrayed as ‘the irreversible loss of qualities conveying the extraordinary general worth of the property’. The UK has likewise been cautioned that Stonehenge will likewise be at risk of losing its posting assuming the advancement of a proposed street burrow goes on.
UNESCO site most need to visit in the UK: St Kilda
Mexico: 35 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
A blend of nature and culture mean Mexico has been granted 35 UNESCO World Heritage Site postings, the largest number in the Americas and the seventh on the planet.
UNESCO site most need to visit in Mexico: Campeche and Oaxaca
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India: 40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
India has a rich culture and an overflow of craftsmanship and design and it is home to 40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the sixth most UNESCO recorded country on the planet and the UNESCO gem of Asia.
India had two destinations recorded to the UNESCO World Heritage list in July 2021. Rudreshwara Temple, otherwise called Ramappa Temple, found 200km north-east of Hyderabad was added to the rundown. The antiquated city of Dholavira: a Harappan City was additionally added.
UNESCO site most need to visit in India: Taj Maha
France: 48 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
History, culture and very much safeguarded locales make France number 5 in the rundown of nations with the most UNESCO destinations. France has 48 destinations: 42 social, 5 regular and one blended.
France had 3 locales engraved to the UNESCO World Heritage list in July 2021. It was remembered for the new UNESCO posting, the extraordinary spa towns of Europe, with Austria, Belgium, Czechia, UK, Germany and Italy. France is incorporated for the improvement of Vichy around its regular mineral water springs. The Lighthouse of Cordouan, a work of art of oceanic flagging, was additionally added to the rundown along with Nice, winter resort town of the Riviera.
UNESCO site most need to visit in France: Gulf of Porto
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Spain: 49 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Europe actually overwhelms the UNESCO postings with 5 of the best 10 nations with the most UNESCOs being situated in Europe. Spain has a convincing blend of culture and a different scope of staggering normal scenes and flaunts 49 UNESCOs.
Spain had one site recorded to the UNESCO World Heritage list in July 2021, the 200 hectare social scene of Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro in Madrid. It incorporates Jardines del Buen Retiro (Garden of Pleasant Retreat), the Fuente de Cibeles and the Fuente de Neptuno wellsprings, and the Plaza de Cibeles.
UNESCO site most need to visit in Spain: Ibiza
Germany: 51 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Dazzling landmarks, parks, urban communities and castles all through Germany assist with getting its spot as one of the most UNESCO weighty nations on the planet with 48 locales.
Germany had 4 destinations engraved to the UNESCO World Heritage list in July 2021. Mathildenhöhe Darmstadt was granted an Unesco posting as acknowledgment for its ‘declaration to early current engineering, metropolitan preparation and scene plan’. It additionally shares an UNESCO, the extraordinary spa towns of Europe, with Austria, Belgium, Czechia, France, Italy and the UK. Germany is incorporated for the improvement of Baden-Baden around its normal mineral water springs.
The Frontiers of the Roman Empire – the Lower German Lines is one more expansion and is imparted to the Netherlands and it includes military and regular citizen locales and foundation that noticeable the edge of Lower Germany from the first to fifth hundreds of years CE. The fourth site added is the ShUM locales of Speyer, Worms and Mainz – these urban areas are perceived for their job as focuses of European Jewish culture in the Middle Ages.
UNESCO site most need to visit in Germany: Hamburg Wadden Sea
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China: 56 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
A late starter to the UNESCO game, China has controlled up the UNESCO positions with 56 destinations presently recorded. While barring UNESCO locales imparted to different nations, China is the country with the largest number of interesting destinations.
China had one site engraved to the UNESCO World Heritage list in July 2021. Quanzhou: Emporium of the World in Song-Yuan China was added to the rundown. The site envelops strict structures, including the eleventh century AD Qingjing Mosque, one of the earliest strict structures, Islamic burial chambers and archeological remaining parts
UNESCO site most need to visit in China: Wulingyuan
Italy: 58 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Italy and China accept the crown as the nations with the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites on the planet. As the origination of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance, Italy has an overflow of culture: 53 of its 58 destinations are social and 5 are regular.
Italy had three locales engraved to the UNESCO World Heritage list in July 2021. Padua was granted its subsequent Unesco posting for it’s fourteenth century fresco cycles.
Italy likewise shares an UNESCO, the incredible spa towns of Europe, with Austria, Belgium, Czechia, France, Germany and the UK. Italy is incorporated for the improvement of Montecatini Terme around its regular mineral water springs. The Porticoes of Bologna is the third site granted an UNESCO and incorporates porticoes (private structures for public use) from the twelfth Century.
UNESCO site most need to visit in Italy: The Dolomite
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Top 10 Industrial Revolution Inventions (History)
The Industrial Revolution, which occurred during the mid-18th and late-19th centuries, shifted people from a primarily agrarian lifestyle to a more urban one.
Although we call this period a “revolution,” the term is a little misleading. The movement that began in the United Kingdom was not a single burst of progress, but rather a series of breakthroughs that relied on or fed off one another.
Similar to how dot-coms defined the 1990s, innovations defined this age. Many of the essential commodities and services we use today would not exist without all of those brilliant brains. Whether daring people ventured to or dreamed of something completely fresh revolutionizing the industry has made a severe impact on everyone’s life for the better and contributed to society in unimaginable ways.
Here are the top 10 industrial revolution inventions that changed mankind’s world.
Methods of Mining Iron
It took a long time to build the infrastructure needed to support the Industrial Revolution. The increased demand for metals, especially iron, has prompted the industry to develop more efficient means of mining and transporting raw materials.
Iron firms supplied a growing amount of iron to factories and industrial enterprises over the course of a few decades. Mining businesses would supply cast iron rather than its more expensive sibling, wrought iron, to create the metal at a lower cost. In addition, metallurgy, or the deeper research of a material’s physical qualities, began to be used in industrial settings. [SOURCE: Science Stuff ]
During the Industrial Revolution and even now, mass production spurred the mechanization of additional technologies. Without the support of the iron industry in the creation of the railroad, locomotive transportation may have been too difficult or costly to pursue at the time.
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Whether it’s the contents of your sock drawer or the latest fashion item, advances in the textile industry throughout the Industrial Revolution enabled mass production.
The spinning jenny had a significant role in these advances. After gathering raw materials such as cotton or wool, they had to be spun into yarn, which was frequently a grueling operation for individuals.
James Hargreaves accepting the British Royal Society of Arts’ challenge, created a mechanism that exceeded the contest’s criteria of spinning more than six threads at the same time. He built a machine that spun eight threads simultaneously, greatly boosting the activity’s efficiency.
Hargreaves’ contraption consisted of a spinning wheel that regulated material flow. The spinning material was kept in position by one end of the machine while the other spun it into a thread by manually rotating a wheel.
Prior to the age of telephones and smartphones, people utilized technology to communicate, although at a slower rate, with an innovation from the Industrial Revolution known as the telegraph.
The telegraph could send messages from one spot to another across vast distances by using an electrical network of networks. The marks created by the machine, which were encrypted in Morse Code, were interpreted by the recipient of a telegraph message.
The first message sent by Samuel Morse, the inventor of the telegraph, in 1844 shows his joy. With his new mechanism, he conveyed “What hath God wrought?” implying that he had discovered something significant. Yes, he did! Morse’s telegraph enabled individuals to communicate almost instantly even if they were not in the same location.
The telegraph also allowed the news media and the government to disseminate information more swiftly. The growth of the telegraph even resulted in the establishment of the first wire news agency, the Associated Press. Morse’s idea eventually connected America to Europe, which was an innovative and worldwide achievement at the time.
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It turns out that the same age that gave us the steam engine also changed the way we keep food.
Inventions continued to drive the Industrial Revolution at a steady rate after spreading from Great Britain to other regions of the world. Nicolas Appert, a French chef, and inventor were engaged in one instance.
Appert investigated numerous methods for storing food in containers in order to develop ways to preserve meals without destroying their flavor or freshness.
Appert also believed that preserving food in containers would be beneficial to sailors suffering from seasickness. He experimented on boiling procedures that involved putting food in a jar, closing it, and then boiling it in water to form a vacuum-tight seal. In the early 1800s, he accomplished this by constructing a particular autoclave for food canning.
Steam-powered technology, like the revved-up V-8 engines and high-speed jet jets that captivate us now, was once cutting-edge, and it played a significant part in enabling the Industrial Revolution. People utilized horse-and-buggy carriages to get around before this era, and mining processes were likewise labor-intensive and inefficient.
The steam engine was not invented by James Watt, a Scottish engineer, but he did invent a more efficient version in the 1760s, adding a separate condenser and permanently transforming the mining business.
Initially, some innovators employed the steam engine to pump and remove water from mining shafts, resulting in improved access to materials below.
Engineers questioned how these engines might be improved as they gained popularity. Watt’s steam engine did not need to cool down after each stroke, which improved mining procedures at the time.
Others questioned whether, instead of delivering raw materials, merchandise, and even people by horse, a steam-powered machine could accomplish the job.
Inventors were encouraged by similar reasoning to investigate the possibilities of steam engines outside of the mining industry. Watt’s improvement of the steam engine paved the way for further Industrial Revolution advances, such as the first steam-powered trains and boats.
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Live concerts were formerly the only way to enjoy music at all. When Thomas Edison was working on a mechanism to transcribe telegraph communications, he had the idea for the phonograph.
The concept was simple but brilliant: a recording needle would press grooves into a revolving cylinder covered with tin according to sound waves from music or speech, and another needle would trace those grooves to replay the original audio.
Unlike Babbage, who had to wait decades for his plans to be built, Edison had his mechanic, John Kruesi, build the machine and reputedly had a functioning prototype in his hands barely 30 hours later. But Edison’s new invention was far from complete.
Edison’s phonograph was not the only one on the market, and consumers gradually abandoned Edison’s cylinders in favor of records, but the essential mechanism remained intact and is still in use today.
The Industrial Revolution produced a slew of game-changing technologies. The camera was not one of them. In truth, the camera’s forefather, known as a camera obscura, had been around for centuries, with portable versions appearing in the late 1500s.
In the 1820s, a Frenchman had the notion to expose paper covered in light-sensitive chemicals to the picture produced by the camera obscura. Eight hours later, the world had its first photograph.
Niepce began working with Louis Daguerre to enhance his design after realizing that eight hours was an incredibly long time to have to sit for a family photo, and Daguerre continued Niepce’s work following his death in 1833.
Throughout the 1830s, Daguerre’s contemporaries, William Henry Fox Talbot, were also working on enhancing photographic pictures and developed the first negative, through which light could be shone on photographic paper to make the positive image.
As exposure periods decreased, advancements like Talbot’s were capable of capturing photographs of moving things. In fact, a photograph of a horse taken in 1877 was used to settle a long-running controversy about whether or not a horse’s four feet left the ground during a full gallop.
Inventions like the light bulb dominate history books, but we’re thinking that anyone who has had surgery would choose anesthetic as their favorite Industrial Revolution product. Prior to its development, the cure for a particular sickness was sometimes significantly worse than the ailment itself.
By the early 1800s, both nitrous oxide and ether had been found, but they were regarded as intoxicants with little practical application. In reality, touring performances would have volunteers take nitrous oxide, sometimes known as laughing gas, in front of live crowds, much to the delight of everybody involved. [Source: Carranza]
During one of these protests, a young dentist named Horace Wells witnessed a friend inhale the gas and hurt his leg. When the guy returned to his seat, Wells enquired if he’d felt any pain during the episode and, upon hearing that he hadn’t begun making arrangements to employ the gas during dental treatment, offering himself as the first patient.
The pneumatic tire, like so many other innovations of the time, “stood on the shoulders of giants” while ushering in a new wave of creation. Although John Dunlop is frequently credited with bringing this wonderful inflated tire to market, its creation dates back to 1839, when Charles Goodyear developed a technology for the vulcanization of rubber.
Vulcanization, which entailed curing rubber with sulfur and lead, resulted in a more stable material that could be used in industrial operations. While rubber technology evolved swiftly, another Industrial Revolution invention teetered on the brink of failure. [Source: MIT]
Dunlop, a veterinarian by trade, noticed the latter issue while watching his small son struggle along on his bike, and he immediately set to work on repairing it. Dunlop’s first experiments used an inflated canvas garden hose that he glued with liquid rubber.
These prototypes outperformed current leather and hardened rubber tires by a wide margin. Soon after, Dunlop began producing bicycle tires with the assistance of W. Edlin and Co., subsequently becoming the Dunlop Rubber Company.
Difference & Analytical Engines
Charles Babbage born in 1791, was an English inventor and mathematician who was charged with combing through mathematical tables for faults. Such tables were regularly utilized in industries such as astronomy, finance, and engineering, and because they were created by hand, they frequently contained errors. [Source: Computer History Museum]
Babbage set out in 1834 to build a computer that consumers could program. Babbage’s machine, like contemporary computers, could store data for later use in other computations and execute logic operations such as if-then statements, among other things.
Top 10 Largest Temples In The World
Top 10 Largest Temples In The World: Many individuals all through the world have faith in numerous divine beings. The pilgrimage sites of these gods make the most significant religious places some of them are big, while some are extraordinarily enormous Hindus, Buddhists Sikhs, and many religions usually build temples as their religious sites. So , here we have listed TOP 10 LARGEST TEMPLES IN THE WORLD.
Baalbek sanctuary is among the most fascinating archeological locales with regards to north-eastern Lebanon. It was the greatest sanctuary in the Roman Empire, named by the Romans Heliopolis. Romans developed three sanctuaries around this area, with Jupiter, Bacchus, and Venus as prime gods.
The sanctuary of Jupiter has 54 weighty rock support points lined, and just 6 of these monster support points are as yet standing. Romans built the sanctuary of Bacchus in AD 150, and the site is still all around protected. Its dividers are adorned with 42 points of support from Corinth and stand upright. Roman Gods Hadad, Atargatis, and a youthful male divine force of fruitfulness were essentially revered.
The sanctuary is a Hindu holy place committed to Lord Shiva on the South Bank of the Kaveri River in Tamil Nadu, India. It is likewise alluded to as Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyär Kôvil. Sanctuary’s engineering. It is probably the biggest sanctuary in South India, cut from a solitary stone, an outline of Dravidianengineering. The sanctuary overall is made out of rock stones and the main complete rock sanctuary.
The sanctuary is around 66 meters high, and a Nandi (Bull) mold is around 16 feet in length and 13 feet tall, which is likewise cut out of a solitary stone. Raja Chola | fabricated this sanctuary around 1010 AD. In a few capacities, the sanctuary guarantees a labor force of 600 individuals. From antiquated times, the Brihadeeswarar sanctuary was the world’s biggest sanctuary of Lord Shiva. This sanctuary is additionally an UNESCO World Heritage site for its brilliant definite compositional plan.
Meenakshi Amman Temple
In the heavenly town of Madurai in India, there is a chronicled Hindu Temple named Meenakshi Sundaresvarar Sanctuary or Meenakshi Amman (“Mother Meenakshi” in old Tamil). It is dedicated to Lord Shiva-here called Sundareswarar or the Beautiful Lord – and his better half, Parvati, privately known as Meenakshi.
The sanctuary is the focal point of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Madurai is an old town that is somewhere around 2500 years of age. Sanctuary engineering contains 14 awesome Gopurams or pinnacles, with two overlaid Gopurams for the essential gods, intricately etched and captured that show the old Indian design and sculptural abilities.
Tikal (Temple IV)
Tikal is one of the greatest Mayan civilization areas in Latin America and the Caribbean in Guatemala. Tikal was a town in old Maya Civilization, where there were numerous pyramidical sanctuaries. Be that as it may, the biggest one, fourth, was built in 741 AD with a stature of 64.6 meters. Like Mesopotamia and the antiquated Indus Valley Civilization, Tikal was among the primary Mayan urban communities to acquire unmistakable quality in the Early Classic time frame (250-600 CE). Tikal acquired its abundance by taking advantage of its regular assets and topographical area to turn into the principal Mayan superpower. Sanctuary IV is the seventh greatest sanctuary on the planet and is additionally a World Heritage site by UNESCO.
The Jetavanaramaya is the greatest stupa complex on the planet when estimated by size. It is situated in the town of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. Ruler Mahasena assembled it in the third century AD, its development gone on for quite some time, and roughly 93.3 million prepared blocks were utilized.
During the development, King passed on, yet it was finished by his child, MaghavanI Jetavanaramaya was the third tallest construction on the planet behind the Egyptian pyramids when it was finished, at a stature of 122 meters (400 feet). The actual vault has a breadth of around 95 meters. Its engineering is hill like and has Buddhist relics, remains of the perished priests.
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Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple is a critical hallowed place committed to Lord Ranganatha (the redlining sight of Ruler Vishnu). It is likewise among the most renowned sanctuaries in India, brimming with a great many travelers and aficionados every year.
The Temple is likewise one of the conspicuous heavenly sanctums and covers an area of 156 sections of land (6,31,000 sq. m). It is 73 meters high and traces all the way back to the seventeenth century, however was just finished in 1987.
Shailendra Dynasty, constructed this sanctuary around the ninth century in Magelang, Central Java. Place of worship’s primary god is Lord Buddha and is essentially an old contemplation community assembled together by priests. Sanctuary contains six square stages, three-round stages that outperform them, perfectly brightened with 2,672 alleviation sheets, and 504 Buddha models.
Also, 72 Buddha figures in a situated position looking towards the focal pinnacle of the top stage encompass the sanctuary. The total region of the total locale is around 2,500 sq. meters.
Completed in 2005 by the spiritual organization BAPS, no expense has been spared in decorating the Akshardham temple. The building was inspired and moderated by Pramukh Swami Maharaj, the current head of Swaminarayan Hinduism. The central monument is 43 meters (141 feet) high, 96 meters (316 feet) wide, and 110 meters (370 feet) long, and is covered top to bottom with carved details of flora, fauna, dancers, musicians, and deities. It is constructed entirely from Rajasthani pink sandstone and Italian Carrara marble, and has no support from steel or concrete
Karnak (Great Hypostyle Hall)
It is perhaps the most visited places in Egypt after the Great Pyramid. However seriously destroyed, there are not many a larger number of spots worth visiting in Egypt than Karnak. It is the world’s greatest old sanctuary structure and portrays the general achievement of Egyptian manufacturer ages. Indeed, Karnak is comprised of a few unmistakable sanctuaries.
Hypostyle Hall, which has an area of 5,000 square meters (50,000 sq ft), is the greatest and generally well known. The development of the construction began during the Middle Kingdom by Sesostris I and continued all through the Ptolemy period. The Precinct of Amun-Ra, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, and the Temple of Amenhotep IV are the main components. This is the antiquated sanctuary that was built in Ptolemaic ages.
Angkor Wat Temple Complex is the biggest sanctuary on the planet, situated in Cambodia, it is the public symbol of the country. Angkor Wat Temple, an UNESCO World Heritage Site, has north of 500 sections of land covered. Khmer King Suryavarman II developed the sanctuary complex .Many specialists think about it as the old world’s greatest strict focus of South East Asia. The site of the sanctuary covers 162.6 hectares or 1,626,000 square meters. Worked around the start of the twelfth century, the sanctuary was devoted to Lord Vishnu and later turned into a Buddhist focus (Buddha is accepted to be Vishnu’s resurrection). It emulates the structural arrangement of Mount Meru, a sacrosanct mountain in both Buddhism and Hinduism.
The principle tower is 65 meters high, is encircled by four different pinnacles. The three-story building has a focal corridor with Buddha’s photos and artworks, portraying scenes of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The essential material involved during development for this sanctuary was sandstones. At the entry of the sanctuary in Angkor Wat, models and gravures are well designed. A sculpture of Lord Vishnu is in the sanctuary, which is 3.2 meters in tallness. The external exhibition of the sanctuary of Angkor Wat covers 186 x 215 meters. Then, at that point, the following two displays are associated with one another. It is 100 x 115 meters (328 x 377 meters) at the second stage. The inside display has a rectangular district of 60 x 60 meters. The pinnacle is 65 meters over the floor over the primary sanctuary.
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Top 10 most populated cities in India(as per census 2011).
India is the second most populous country in the world. It is also the seventh biggest country in terms of land or area. Population of india is about 1.3 billion and it’s still growing. India is also famous for its variety of cultures. India shares it’s boundaries with the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India also has big cities. Let us talk about 10 most populous cities in India.
Jaipur is also known as pink city of India. It is also the capital city of the Indian state Rajasthan. It is one of the populated city in India. Jaipur was founded in 1727 by the Rajput ruler Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named. It was one of the earliest planned cities of modern India, designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. During the British Colonial period, the city served as the capital of Jaipur State. After independence in 1947, Jaipur was made the capital of the newly formed state of Rajasthan. Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra (240 km, 149 mi) .
Pune is second most famous city in the beautiful state of Maharashtra. It is also one of the populated city in India. It is famous for its weather. It’s population is 31 lakhs. According to the 2011 census the urban area had a combined population of 5.05 million whilst the population of the metropolitan region was estimated at 7.4 million. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of its namesake district.
Surat is located in the Gujarat state of India. It is also one of the most populated city in India. It’s population is about 44 lakhs( as per 2011 census). Surat local language is Gujarati and Hindi. Surat city is famous for its Diamonds. It is the administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai.
Kolkata is one of the most famous cities in the north east side of India. Kolkata is the capital of west Bengal State. The population of kolkata is 44 lakhs.It is the primary business, commercial, and financial hub of Eastern India and the main port of communication for North-East India, as well as having the third-largest urban economy of India. Kolkata is home to 9,600 millionaires and 4 billionaires with a total wealth of $290 billion. The Port of Kolkata is India’s oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. Kolkata is known as the “cultural capital of India” .
Chennai or firmly known as Madras. It is the capital of Tamil Nadu India. It is famous for its beach and humid weather. Marina beach is the beach here . Chennai population is about 46 lakhs. The city together with the adjoining regions constitutes the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. The traditional and de facto gateway of South India, Chennai is among the most-visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked the 43rd-most visited city in the world for the year 2015 and was ranked the 36th-most visited city in the world for the year 2019.
Hyderabad is a city which is located in the Telangana state of India. It is popular for its “Biryani” ( an indian dish). Its population is about 68 lakhs ( as per 2011 census). Hyderabad is the capital of southern India’s Telangana state. A major center for the technology industry, it’s home to many upscale restaurants and shops. Its historic sites include Golconda Fort, a former diamond-trading center that was once the Qutb Shahi dynastic capital. The Charminar, a 16th-century mosque whose 4 arches support towering minarets, is an old city landmark near the long-standing Laad bazaar.
Ahmedabad is one of the famous city in India. It is the capital of Gujarat state in india. Ahmedabad is famous for its newly made Narendra Modi cricket stadium which is world’s largest cricket stadium. It is the administrative headquarters of the Ahmedabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. Ahmedabad’s population of 5,633,927 (as per 2011 population-census) makes it the fifth-most populous city in India, and the encompassing urban agglomeration population estimated at 6,357,693 is the seventh-most populous in India. Ahmedabad is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River, 23 km (14 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.
Bangalore is also known as the silicon city of India. It is also IT Hub of India. It is the capital city of Karnataka India. It is also second biggest city in terms of land. It’s population is about 84 lakhs.A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Bangalore either the fourth or fifth-most productive metro area of India. Bangalore is home to 7,700 millionaires and 8 billionaires with a total wealth of $320 billion.
Delhi is the capital of India. It is a metropolitan city. It is also known as the green city of India. It is the second most populated city in India. It is biggest city in terms of land in India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index. Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India. Delhi is of great historical significance as an important commercial, transport, and cultural hub, as well as the political centre of India.
Mumbai is the most populated city in India. It is also the most wealthiest city in India. It’s population is about 1.2 crores.Mumbai is the centre of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the sixth most populous metropolitan area in the world with a population of over 23 million. Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India.
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Top 10 Famous Statues In The World.
A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals or non-representational forms are carved or cast in a durable material such as wood, metal, or stone. Typical statues are life-sized or close to life-size; a sculpture that represents persons or animals in full figure but that is small enough to lift and carry is a statuette or figurine, whilst one more than twice life-size is a colossal statue. Statues have been produced in many cultures from prehistory to the present; the oldest-known statue dating to about 30,000 years ago. Statues represent many different people and animals, real and mythical. Many statues are placed in public places as public art. The world’s tallest statue, the Statue of Unity, is 182 meters (597 ft) tall and is located near the Narmada dam in Gujarat, India. Ancient statues often show the bare surface of the material of which they are made. For example, many people associate Greek classical art with white marble sculptures, but there is evidence that many statues were painted in bright colors. Most of the color has weathered off over time; small remnants were removed during cleaning; in some cases, small traces remained that could be identified. A traveling exhibition of 20 colored replicas of Greek and Roman works, alongside 35 original statues and reliefs, was held in Europe and the United States in 2008: Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity. Details such as whether the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground, or exactly which binding medium would have been used in each case—all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece—are not known. Richter goes so far as to say of classical Greek sculpture, “All stone sculpture, whether limestone or marble, was painted, either wholly or in part.
Christ of the Abyss:
Christ of the Abyss is a submerged bronze statue of Jesus Christ by Guido Galletti, the original cast of which is located in the Mediterranean Sea, off San Fruttuoso, between Camogli and Portofino on the Italian Riviera. Various other casts of the statue are located in other places worldwide, in underwater locations, churches, and museums. The original clay positive, minus the arms, was located in a foundry in 1993. The arms were later found and attached, but not the hands, which had to be replaced. The reconfigured clay sculpture is now on display at the National Museum of Underwater Activities in Ravenna, Italy.
Grand Buddha at Ling Shan:
The Grand Buddha is located on the north shore of Lake Tai, near Wuxi, Jiangsu. It is one of the largest Buddha statues in China and also in the world. The Grand Buddha at Ling Shan is a bronze Amitabha standing Buddha outdoor, weighing over 700 metric tons (690 long tons; 770 short tons). It was completed at the end of 1996. The monument is 88 meters (289 ft) in total height, including a 9 m lotus pedestal. In 2008, a Five-signets Palace and a Hindu-inspired Brahma Palace were built south-east of the Grand Buddha Statue.
Tian Tan Buddha:
Tian Tan Buddha is a large bronze statue of Buddha Amoghasiddhi, completed in 1993, and located at Ngong Ping, Lantau Island, in Hong Kong. The statue is sited near Po Lin Monastery and symbolizes the harmonious relationship between man and nature, people and faith. It is a major center of Buddhism in Hong Kong and is also a tourist attraction. The statue’s base is a model of the Altar of Heaven or Earthly Mount of Tian Tan, the Temple of Heaven in Beijing. One of the five large Buddha statues in China, it is enthroned on a lotus on top of a three-platform altar. Surrounding it are six smaller bronze statues known as “The Offering of the Six Devas” that are posed offering flowers, incense, lamp, ointment, fruit, and music to the Buddha. These symbolize the Six Perfections of generosity, morality, patience, zeal, meditation, and wisdom, all of which are necessary for enlightenment.
Leshan Giant Buddha:
The Leshan Giant Buddha is a 71-meter (233 ft) tall stone statue, built between 713 and 803 (during the Tang dynasty), depicting Maitreya. It is carved out of a cliff face of Cretaceous red bed sandstones that lies at the confluence of the Min River and Dadu River in the southern part of Sichuan province in China, near the city of Leshan. The stone sculpture faces Mount Emei, with the rivers flowing below its feet. It is the largest and tallest stone Buddha statue in the world and it is by far the tallest pre-modern statue in the world. The Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area, has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996.
Spring Temple Buddha:
The Spring Temple Buddha is a colossal statue depicting Vairocana Buddha located in the Zhaocun township of Lushan County, Henan, China, built from 1997 to 2008. It is located within the Fodushan Scenic Area, close to National Freeway no. 311. At 128 meters (420 ft), excluding a 25 meters (82 ft) lotus throne, it is the second-tallest statue in the world after the Statue of Unity in Gujarat, India, which surpassed it in 2018 with a height of 182 meters (597 ft). Taking into account the 25 meters (82 ft) pedestal/building atop which it is placed, the monument has a total height of 153 meters (502 ft). As of October 2008, the hill on which the statue stands is being reshaped to form two further pedestals, the upper one being 15 m tall. The total height of the monument is now said to be 208 m (682 ft). The project as a whole was estimated to cost around $55 million, $18 million of which was to be spent on the statue. It was originally estimated to consist of 1,100 pieces of the copper cast, with a total weight of 1,000 tonnes. The Spring Temple Buddha derives its name from the nearby Tianrui hot spring, whose water, at 60 °C (140 °F), is renowned in the area for its curative properties. The Foquan Temple, built during the Tang dynasty, houses the Bell of Good Luck, placed on top of Dragon Head peak. This bronze bell weighs 116 tonnes.
Venus de Milo:
The Venus de Milo is an ancient Greek sculpture from the Hellenistic period, depicting a Greek goddess. It is one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture. The Venus de Milo has been prominently displayed at the Louvre Museum in Paris shortly after the statue was rediscovered on the island of Milos, Greece in 1820. Sculpted sometime between 150 and 125 BC, the work was originally attributed to the sculptor Praxiteles, but, based upon an inscription on its plinth, the statue is now widely agreed to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch. The statue is believed to depict Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, and it bears the name of Venus, the Roman counterpart of Aphrodite. Some scholars theorize that the statue actually represents the sea-goddess Amphitrite, who was venerated on Milos. Made of Parian marble, the statue is slightly larger than life-size, standing 204 cm (6 ft 8 in) high. The statue is missing both arms, with part of one arm, as well as the original plinth, being lost after the statue’s rediscovery. The sculpture is sometimes called the Aphrodite de Milos, due to the imprecision of naming the Greek sculpture after the Roman deity Venus.
The Little Mermaid:
The Little Mermaid is a bronze statue by Edvard Eriksen, depicting a mermaid becoming human. The sculpture is displayed on a rock by the waterside at the Langelinie promenade in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is 1.25 meters (4.1 ft) tall and weighs 175 kilograms (385 lb). Based on the 1837 fairy tale of the same name by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen, the small and unimposing statue is a Copenhagen icon and has been a major tourist attraction since its unveiling in 1913. In recent decades it has become a popular target for defacement by vandals and political activists. Mermaid is among iconic statues that symbolize cities; others include Manneken Pis in Brussels, the Statue of Liberty in New York, and Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro. In several cases, cities have commissioned statues for such a purpose, such as with Singapore’s Merlion.
The Motherland Calls:
The Motherland Calls is the compositional center of the monument-ensemble “Heroes of the Battle of Stalingrad” on Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd, Russia. It was designed by sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and structural engineer Nikolai Nikitin and declared the tallest statue in the world in 1967. At 85 m (279 ft), it is the tallest statue in Europe, the tallest outside of Asia, and the tallest statue (excluding pedestals) of a woman in the world. The work of sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and engineer Nikolai Nikitin is an 85-meter (279 ft) figure of a woman stepping forward with a raised sword. The statue is an allegorical image of the Motherland, which calls on its sons and daughters to repulse the enemy and return to the attack.
Christ the Redeemer:
Christ the Redeemer is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with the French engineer Albert Caquot. Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida fashioned the face. Constructed between 1922 and 1931, the statue is 30 meters (98 ft) high, excluding its 8-meter (26 ft) pedestal. The arms stretch 28 meters (92 ft) wide. The statue weighs 635 metric tons (625 long, 700 short tons), and is located at the peak of the 700-meter (2,300 ft) Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city of Rio de Janeiro. A symbol of Christianity across the world, the statue has also become a cultural icon of both Rio de Janeiro and Brazil and was voted as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone.
Statue of Liberty National Monument:
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor within New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. The statue is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries, a tabula ansata inscribed JULY IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776, in Roman numerals), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken shackle and chain lie at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery. After its dedication, the statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, seen as a symbol of welcome to immigrants arriving by sea.
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