While aerospace technology used to be limited in a few countries, over the years, the scenario has changed quite a bit. A host of ambitious nations are boosting their space exploration programs, ensuring major competition in the field. Space research is scientific study carried out in outer space, and by studying outer space. From the use of space technology to the observable universe , space research is a wide research field. Earth science, Material science and Physics all apply to the space research environment.
Here is a list of the top 10 countries according to Aerospace-technology.com which have an active space presence:
Luxembourg operates large number of communications and remote sensing satellites, making it one of the top nations with space existence. It is one of the Member States of ESA and carries space research activities under its National Action Plan for Space R&D. The nation is also home to the headquarters of world’s leading telecommunications satellite operators SES (Société Européenne des Satellites) and Intelsat.
The Luxembourg Space Cluster unites highly specialised companies and government research agencies focussing on space telecommunications, global navigation satellite system and location-based services, earth observation, maritime safety and protection, and space technologies.
The French space programme constitutes both civil and military space missions and its space policy is implemented by state-owned Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), which is responsible for the development and execution of space programmes alongside industry and the scientific community. The nation’s in-orbit spacecraft constitute earth observation and reconnaissance satellites, electronic signals intelligence satellites, civil and military communications satellites.
France is one of the largest contributors to the European Space Agency (ESA) which is headquartered in Paris. The space research and development is carried out at Toulouse Space Centre whereas CNES, ESA and Arianespace conduct launches from the Guiana Space Centre.
The successful launch of Azur satellite in 1969 demonstrated Germany’s space-faring capabilities to the world. Germany have launched several spacecraft including telecommunications, navigation and earth observation satellites, and are involved in the core missions such as Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, European space laboratory Columbus, Dawn – Mission to Vesta and Ceres and the European Galileo navigation system.
The national space programme is implemented by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) which supports the German space industry to meet the strategic goals in the European programmes associated with the ESA and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).
Canada’s debut into space came with the launch of its first satellite Alouette 1 in 1962. It currently operates a fleet of RADARSAT and SCISAT earth observation satellites, ANIK communications satellites, and BRITE science satellites as well as micro and hybrid spacecraft.
The Canadian space programme is controlled by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The nation currently possesses no indigenous launch system, and depends on the US, India and Russia to launch its spacecraft.
India has launched more than 80 spacecraft since its maiden satellite launch in 1975. The nation’s space research activities are controlled by state-owned Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). India currently operates INSAT and GSAT series communication satellites, earth observation satellites, and IRNSS series navigational satellites.
Dual-use satellites such as TES and Cartosat serve both civilian and military applications, whereas India’s first dedicated defence satellite GSAT-7 serves the military. India also executed the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) at a cost of $75m, spending approximately one-tenth of what NASA did on the MAVEN Mars mission.
The United Kingdom launched its first satellite Ariel 1 in 1962, making it the third nation after the USSR and the US to launch artificial satellite into orbit. It presently operates large number of satellites including civil and military communications satellites, earth observation satellites, and scientific and exploration spacecraft.
The UK is one of the largest monetary contributors to the European Space Agency (ESA) and participates in advanced science and exploration missions such as BepiColombo, Euclid and ExoMars Rover carried out by the ESA. The United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) is responsible for the implementation of national civil space programme.
Japan launched its first satellite Osumi into space in February 1970, becoming the fourth nation after the USSR, the US and France to possess indigenous satellite launch capability. It currently operates a fleet of communications, meteorological, earth observation and astronomical observation satellites.
Notable Japanese space programmes are the Japanese Experiment Module (KIBO)-ISS, H-II Transfer Vehicle KOUNOTORI5 (HTV5) and H-II launch vehicle. The national aerospace research and development activities are controlled by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
The origins of Russian space programme can be traced back to 1957 when the world’s first artificial satellite Sputnik 1 was launched by the Soviet Union. The country now operates the third largest fleet of spacecraft including communications, meteorological and reconnaissance satellites.
Projects include Soyuz manned spacecraft, Salyut 1 space station and Lunokhod 1 space rover. The Russian Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) supervises civilian space activities, whereas the Russian Space Forces (VKS) handles defence satellite launches and military flight control assets.
China owns and manages the second largest fleet of spacecraft in orbit, currently operating several constellations of navigation satellites, remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, surveillance and spacecraft. China is one of three nations with the capability to recover satellites and conductg a manned space flight.
China’s major missions include the Tiangong-1 space station, Shenzhou manned space flight programme and the Chinese Lunar Exploration Programme (CLEP). The Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) handles the planning and development of national space programmes,while state-owned China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) is the prime contractor responsible for the design and development of launch vehicles and satellites as well as commercial launch services.
Unites States of America
US accounts for approximately one-third of the operational spacecraft currently in orbit around Earth. The Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), Mars Exploration Rover – Opportunity, and Mars rover Curiosity are the cornerstones of the nation’s space programme.
The nation launched its first satellite into space in February 1958 and currently operates a large fleet of communications, electronic intelligence, missile detection, weather, technology, navigation, and surveillance satellites. The national space exploration efforts of the country are led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
Top 10 Evidence Nature Surprised Every Time
Where does the most incredible evidence come from? No, it’s not past events or the human body; instead, it’s mother nature. There are a lot of strange facts because it is made up of so many different animals and plants. We’d like to share some of the strangest animal information with you in this article. So, at the very least, remember one of them so you can brag about your experience. Believe it or not, the blue whale, the world’s largest dolphin, will produce a fart bubble large enough to fit a horse inside. Also, we’re sure you didn’t know that a female wallaby would chuck her joey from her pouch while fleeing a predator in order to lose weight and give her pursuer something to snack on. Did you know that an armadillo’s armour is so thick that a bullet once bounced off it and struck the shooter?
More strange and wonderful animal details can be found by scrolling down.
Arcadia trees, which can be found in the African savannah, have an unusual defensive mechanism. When animals such as antelopes eat the tree’s leaves, the tannin intake rises to dangerous levels for the animals.
That’s not everything, though. The tree then releases a cloud of ethylene gas, which passes through the air and reaches other plants, causing them to produce more tannins as well.
Goats have accents
Though goats don’t have their own language, researchers at the Queen Mary University of London discovered that they can pick up accents from one another.
African buffalo herds make decisions by voting
Democracy, it seems, is not limited to mankind. African buffalo herds, for example, are known to vote on which way they will head.
Adult females in the herd will stand up one by one, look in a specific direction, and then lie back down. The herd almost always heads in the direction that attracts the most attention. When there is a lot of disagreement about how to vote, the herd will always break up.
Saturn Could Float on Water
Buoyancy has little to do with size. Take, for example, a massive iceberg. It will float on top of the water because it is less dense than the water underneath it. Gas, like water, has a much lower density than liquid. Saturn, despite being the second-largest planet in our solar system, could float in water because it is almost entirely made up of gas and ice.
Hurricanes release the energy of 10,000 nuclear bombs.
A single mature hurricane will equal around half of our planet’s ability to produce electricity if measured solely by its wind velocity’s kinetic energy. In terms of rainfall, a hurricane, on the other hand, unleashes the power of 10,000 atomic bombs over a 413-mile-wide field. The difference is that instead of radiating from a single spot, the energy is spread out over the entire field. Still, like many Floridians, Texans, Louisianans, and North Carolinians know, too much sustained force can do a lot of harm.
Tigers never forgets.
Tigers can and will take revenge on those who have wronged them. They are one of the most vengeful aminal species on the planet.
One of the elephant’s closest living relatives weighs 10 pounds.
Only a few areas of Africa and the Middle East are home to the fuzzy rock hyrax. It has an extraordinary relative, the elephant, despite its unremarkable appearance. The parallels between these 10-pound animals and a 10,000-pound elephant must be examined closely. The rock hyrax, on the other hand, has tusk-like long front teeth.
Our DNA can never be fired
Your DNA is truly remarkable in that it encodes your entire body’s blueprint using just four characters (amino acids). Not just that, but there’s more. As concentrated genetic material is applied to the outside surface of cotton cloth, the DNA becomes flame retardant. DNA appears to be made up of molecules that are identical to those used in other fireproofing materials.
Glass is neither a liquid nor a solid
Glass is an amorphous substance that lacks the rigid structure of a truly solid and is not, contrary to popular belief, a supercooled liquid. It’s a cross between the two. Keep that in mind. Blown away.!
Slow lorises are the only venomous primate
The slow loris is a tiny, monkey-like creature with big round eyes that can only be found in Southeast Asia. They also have the distinction of being the only primate with a venomous bite in the animal kingdom. They lick a toxin-producing gland under their arm before using their teeth to ward off predators.
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- 9 Must-see Museums In New York City
- Top 10 Best Indian Hindi Songs
- Top 10 Blues Songs Of All Time
- Top 10 Best Rappers of All Time
- Top 10 Modern Bands
- Top 10 Most Rated Bucket List Destinations
- Top 10 Best Cheap Places to Travel in July
- Top 10 Best Luxury All-Inclusive Resorts in the World
- Top 10 Highest Paying Jobs In India
- Top 10 Deadliest Terrorist Attacks in the World