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We have come to take science’s fruits for granted, such as the use of computers, access to drinking water and power, and our reliance on different modes of transportation and connectivity. Many of these advantages, moreover, are the result of scientists‘ observations and innovations as they seek deeper insights into the dynamics of nature and its components.
Anthony S. Fauci
Anthony S. Fauci graduated from Cornell University’s Medical College with a doctorate in medicine. He is the director of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation and the head of the Clinical Physiology Section at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Fauci’s scientific portfolio covers advanced research to deter, detect, and cure infectious and immune-mediated illnesses (including HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases), illnesses from possible bioterrorism agents, tuberculosis, malaria, autoimmune disorders, asthma, and allergies. Fauci has made significant contributions to our understanding of how the AIDS virus kills the body’s defences, making it vulnerable to lethal infections, and he continues to dedicate much of his laboratory time to determining the extent of HIV infection’s immunopathogenic processes and the scope of the body’s immune responses to the retrovirus.
Margaret J. Geller
Margaret J. Geller is a Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics astrophysicist in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She received her PhD in physics from Princeton University and worked at Harvard University as an assistant professor in astronomy. Geller’s latest research interests include the “Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey” (SHELS), a project she heads that uses the gravitational lensing effect to chart the distribution of the elusive, universal dark matter in the universe. Geller has earned several honours, including the American Physical Society’s Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize in 2013, the American Astronomical Society’s Henry Norris Russell Lectureship in 2010, the National Academy of Sciences’ James Craig Watson Medal in 2010, and the American Philosophical Society’s Magellanic Premium in 2008.
Kary B. Mullis
Kary B. Mullis is a biochemist who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993 with Michael Smith for automating the polymerase chain reaction, a chemical procedure (PCR). Medicine, biology, biotechnology, and forensics have also benefited from the new approach. Because of its ability to remove DNA from fossils, PCR is also the foundation of a modern scientific discipline called paleopathology. Mullis has earned several honours, including the Ronald H. Brown American Innovator Award in 1998, the Japan Prize in 1993, and the National Biotechnology Award in 1991. In addition, in 1996, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Charles H. Townes
Charles H. Townes is a physicist who has taught at a number of institutions, including the University of Tokyo, the University of Paris, the University of California, and Columbia University. In 1964, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Nikolay Basov and Alexander Prokhorov for groundbreaking work on quantum oscillators and amplifiers. How the Laser Happened: Adventures of a Scientist, Microwave Spectroscopy, and a memoir, Making Waves, are among Townes’ works. Townes has received many honours in addition to the Nobel Prize, including the Nancy Deloye Fitzroy and Roland V. Fitzroy Medal in 2012, the National Medal of Science (presented by President Ronald Reagan) in 1982, and the Niels Bohr International.
Sydney Brenner is a biologist who, along with H. Robert Horvitz and John Sulston, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2002. His key accomplishments include deciphering the genetic code. Brenner is a Senior Distinguished Fellow at the Salk Institute of Biological Sciences’ Crick-Jacobs Center. Brenner established the existence of messenger RNA and showed how the sequence of amino acids in proteins is calculated, among other things. He also began doing groundbreaking research with the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans in 1965, which led to his Nobel Prize.
On Christmas Day, 1642, Isaac Newton was born. He was never the modest kind, but the date was appropriate: the contribution to mankind and science had arrived. His simple life as a sickly infant was a triumph. Newton discovered the laws that bear his name just 23 years later when his alma mater Cambridge University and most of England were closed due to the plague. This rare setback, along with the disintegration of one of his few close friendships — and probably mercury poisoning from his alchemical experiments — resulted in a protracted nervous breakdown in 1692. Newton’s days of generating research were numbered, but he would remain prominent in the field for reasons that he knew about.
Galileo Galilei, an Italian mathematician, invented modern astronomy by pointing a telescope at the sky. His subsequent observations revealed four massive moons orbiting Jupiter, as well as the fact that the Milky Way’s hazy light is emitted by a large number of faint stars. Galileo also discovered sunspots on the surface of our star and the periods of Venus, confirming that the earth revolves around the sun. The real blow came in 1633 when Galileo wrote a comparison of the Copernican (sun-centred) and Ptolemaic (Earth-centered) regimes, which made the latter’s adherents look stupid. They imprisoned him until his death in 1642, the same year that Isaac Newton was born.
According to Sandra Knapp, a botanist and taxonomist at the Natural History Museum in London, Linnaeus, who was born in southern Sweden in 1707, was an “intensely practical” guy. Linnaeus, a botanist with an eye for description, used what he termed “trivial names” in the margins of his 1753 book Species Plantarum for the first time. Linnaeus, a botanist with an eye for description, used what he termed “trivial names” in the margins of his 1753 book Species Plantarum for the first time. He meant each plant’s basic Latin two-word construction as a kind of shorthand, a quick way to recall what it was.
Timothy Berners-Lee is a computer scientist who is best known for creating the World Wide Web. During the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, he was recognised as the “Inventor of the World Wide Web.” He was elected as a foreign member to the National Academy of Sciences of the United States in 2009. Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2004 for his groundbreaking work. Berners-Lee received the inaugural Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering in 2013, along with five other Internet and Web pioneers. The University of St. Andrews has bestowed upon him an honorary Doctor of Science degree. The Internet Society inducted Berners-Lee into the Internet Hall of Fame in 2012.
David Baltimore is a biology professor at the California Institute of Technology, where he was president from 1997 to 2006. He’s also the head of the Joint Center for Translational Medicine, a collaboration between Caltech and UCLA aimed at turning scientific research findings into clinical realities. Baltimore is the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s former president and current chair (2007—2009). 680 peer-reviewed papers have been published in Baltimore. His most recent studies have focused on the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses, the function of microRNAs in the immune system, and the use of gene therapy approaches to treat HIV and cancer.
He is also a member of the Broad Institute, Ragon Institute, Regulus Therapeutics, and Immune Design’s scientific advisory boards.
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- 10 Awesome Facts About Steven Universe
- 10 Best Special Forces In The World
- 10 Best quran reciters in the world
- 10 Best places to visit in Bangladesh
- 10 Best Places To Visit In Sri Lana
- 7 Best Muslim Leaders & Commanders in History
- 10 Astonishing Facts About The ISRO
- 10 Amazing Facts About Harley Quinn
- 10 Best Middle Eastern Foods
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