A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals or non-representational forms are carved or cast in a durable material such as wood, metal, or stone. Typical statues are life-sized or close to life-size; a sculpture that represents persons or animals in full figure but that is small enough to lift and carry is a statuette or figurine, whilst one more than twice life-size is a colossal statue. Statues have been produced in many cultures from prehistory to the present; the oldest-known statue dating to about 30,000 years ago. Statues represent many different people and animals, real and mythical. Many statues are placed in public places as public art. The world’s tallest statue, the Statue of Unity, is 182 meters (597 ft) tall and is located near the Narmada dam in Gujarat, India. Ancient statues often show the bare surface of the material of which they are made. For example, many people associate Greek classical art with white marble sculptures, but there is evidence that many statues were painted in bright colors. Most of the color has weathered off over time; small remnants were removed during cleaning; in some cases, small traces remained that could be identified. A traveling exhibition of 20 colored replicas of Greek and Roman works, alongside 35 original statues and reliefs, was held in Europe and the United States in 2008: Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity. Details such as whether the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground, or exactly which binding medium would have been used in each case—all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece—are not known. Richter goes so far as to say of classical Greek sculpture, “All stone sculpture, whether limestone or marble, was painted, either wholly or in part.
Christ of the Abyss:
Christ of the Abyss is a submerged bronze statue of Jesus Christ by Guido Galletti, the original cast of which is located in the Mediterranean Sea, off San Fruttuoso, between Camogli and Portofino on the Italian Riviera. Various other casts of the statue are located in other places worldwide, in underwater locations, churches, and museums. The original clay positive, minus the arms, was located in a foundry in 1993. The arms were later found and attached, but not the hands, which had to be replaced. The reconfigured clay sculpture is now on display at the National Museum of Underwater Activities in Ravenna, Italy.
Grand Buddha at Ling Shan:
The Grand Buddha is located on the north shore of Lake Tai, near Wuxi, Jiangsu. It is one of the largest Buddha statues in China and also in the world. The Grand Buddha at Ling Shan is a bronze Amitabha standing Buddha outdoor, weighing over 700 metric tons (690 long tons; 770 short tons). It was completed at the end of 1996. The monument is 88 meters (289 ft) in total height, including a 9 m lotus pedestal. In 2008, a Five-signets Palace and a Hindu-inspired Brahma Palace were built south-east of the Grand Buddha Statue.
Tian Tan Buddha:
Tian Tan Buddha is a large bronze statue of Buddha Amoghasiddhi, completed in 1993, and located at Ngong Ping, Lantau Island, in Hong Kong. The statue is sited near Po Lin Monastery and symbolizes the harmonious relationship between man and nature, people and faith. It is a major center of Buddhism in Hong Kong and is also a tourist attraction. The statue’s base is a model of the Altar of Heaven or Earthly Mount of Tian Tan, the Temple of Heaven in Beijing. One of the five large Buddha statues in China, it is enthroned on a lotus on top of a three-platform altar. Surrounding it are six smaller bronze statues known as “The Offering of the Six Devas” that are posed offering flowers, incense, lamp, ointment, fruit, and music to the Buddha. These symbolize the Six Perfections of generosity, morality, patience, zeal, meditation, and wisdom, all of which are necessary for enlightenment.
Leshan Giant Buddha:
The Leshan Giant Buddha is a 71-meter (233 ft) tall stone statue, built between 713 and 803 (during the Tang dynasty), depicting Maitreya. It is carved out of a cliff face of Cretaceous red bed sandstones that lies at the confluence of the Min River and Dadu River in the southern part of Sichuan province in China, near the city of Leshan. The stone sculpture faces Mount Emei, with the rivers flowing below its feet. It is the largest and tallest stone Buddha statue in the world and it is by far the tallest pre-modern statue in the world. The Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area, has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996.
Spring Temple Buddha:
The Spring Temple Buddha is a colossal statue depicting Vairocana Buddha located in the Zhaocun township of Lushan County, Henan, China, built from 1997 to 2008. It is located within the Fodushan Scenic Area, close to National Freeway no. 311. At 128 meters (420 ft), excluding a 25 meters (82 ft) lotus throne, it is the second-tallest statue in the world after the Statue of Unity in Gujarat, India, which surpassed it in 2018 with a height of 182 meters (597 ft). Taking into account the 25 meters (82 ft) pedestal/building atop which it is placed, the monument has a total height of 153 meters (502 ft). As of October 2008, the hill on which the statue stands is being reshaped to form two further pedestals, the upper one being 15 m tall. The total height of the monument is now said to be 208 m (682 ft). The project as a whole was estimated to cost around $55 million, $18 million of which was to be spent on the statue. It was originally estimated to consist of 1,100 pieces of the copper cast, with a total weight of 1,000 tonnes. The Spring Temple Buddha derives its name from the nearby Tianrui hot spring, whose water, at 60 °C (140 °F), is renowned in the area for its curative properties. The Foquan Temple, built during the Tang dynasty, houses the Bell of Good Luck, placed on top of Dragon Head peak. This bronze bell weighs 116 tonnes.
Venus de Milo:
The Venus de Milo is an ancient Greek sculpture from the Hellenistic period, depicting a Greek goddess. It is one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture. The Venus de Milo has been prominently displayed at the Louvre Museum in Paris shortly after the statue was rediscovered on the island of Milos, Greece in 1820. Sculpted sometime between 150 and 125 BC, the work was originally attributed to the sculptor Praxiteles, but, based upon an inscription on its plinth, the statue is now widely agreed to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch. The statue is believed to depict Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, and it bears the name of Venus, the Roman counterpart of Aphrodite. Some scholars theorize that the statue actually represents the sea-goddess Amphitrite, who was venerated on Milos. Made of Parian marble, the statue is slightly larger than life-size, standing 204 cm (6 ft 8 in) high. The statue is missing both arms, with part of one arm, as well as the original plinth, being lost after the statue’s rediscovery. The sculpture is sometimes called the Aphrodite de Milos, due to the imprecision of naming the Greek sculpture after the Roman deity Venus.
The Little Mermaid:
The Little Mermaid is a bronze statue by Edvard Eriksen, depicting a mermaid becoming human. The sculpture is displayed on a rock by the waterside at the Langelinie promenade in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is 1.25 meters (4.1 ft) tall and weighs 175 kilograms (385 lb). Based on the 1837 fairy tale of the same name by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen, the small and unimposing statue is a Copenhagen icon and has been a major tourist attraction since its unveiling in 1913. In recent decades it has become a popular target for defacement by vandals and political activists. Mermaid is among iconic statues that symbolize cities; others include Manneken Pis in Brussels, the Statue of Liberty in New York, and Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro. In several cases, cities have commissioned statues for such a purpose, such as with Singapore’s Merlion.
The Motherland Calls:
The Motherland Calls is the compositional center of the monument-ensemble “Heroes of the Battle of Stalingrad” on Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd, Russia. It was designed by sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and structural engineer Nikolai Nikitin and declared the tallest statue in the world in 1967. At 85 m (279 ft), it is the tallest statue in Europe, the tallest outside of Asia, and the tallest statue (excluding pedestals) of a woman in the world. The work of sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and engineer Nikolai Nikitin is an 85-meter (279 ft) figure of a woman stepping forward with a raised sword. The statue is an allegorical image of the Motherland, which calls on its sons and daughters to repulse the enemy and return to the attack.
Christ the Redeemer:
Christ the Redeemer is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with the French engineer Albert Caquot. Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida fashioned the face. Constructed between 1922 and 1931, the statue is 30 meters (98 ft) high, excluding its 8-meter (26 ft) pedestal. The arms stretch 28 meters (92 ft) wide. The statue weighs 635 metric tons (625 long, 700 short tons), and is located at the peak of the 700-meter (2,300 ft) Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city of Rio de Janeiro. A symbol of Christianity across the world, the statue has also become a cultural icon of both Rio de Janeiro and Brazil and was voted as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone.
Statue of Liberty National Monument:
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor within New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. The statue is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries, a tabula ansata inscribed JULY IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776, in Roman numerals), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken shackle and chain lie at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery. After its dedication, the statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, seen as a symbol of welcome to immigrants arriving by sea.
Top 10 most populated cities in India(as per census 2011).
India is the second most populous country in the world. It is also the seventh biggest country in terms of land or area. Population of india is about 1.3 billion and it’s still growing. India is also famous for its variety of cultures. India shares it’s boundaries with the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India also has big cities. Let us talk about 10 most populous cities in India.
Jaipur is also known as pink city of India. It is also the capital city of the Indian state Rajasthan. It is one of the populated city in India. Jaipur was founded in 1727 by the Rajput ruler Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named. It was one of the earliest planned cities of modern India, designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. During the British Colonial period, the city served as the capital of Jaipur State. After independence in 1947, Jaipur was made the capital of the newly formed state of Rajasthan. Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra (240 km, 149 mi) .
Pune is second most famous city in the beautiful state of Maharashtra. It is also one of the populated city in India. It is famous for its weather. It’s population is 31 lakhs. According to the 2011 census the urban area had a combined population of 5.05 million whilst the population of the metropolitan region was estimated at 7.4 million. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of its namesake district.
Surat is located in the Gujarat state of India. It is also one of the most populated city in India. It’s population is about 44 lakhs( as per 2011 census). Surat local language is Gujarati and Hindi. Surat city is famous for its Diamonds. It is the administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai.
Kolkata is one of the most famous cities in the north east side of India. Kolkata is the capital of west Bengal State. The population of kolkata is 44 lakhs.It is the primary business, commercial, and financial hub of Eastern India and the main port of communication for North-East India, as well as having the third-largest urban economy of India. Kolkata is home to 9,600 millionaires and 4 billionaires with a total wealth of $290 billion. The Port of Kolkata is India’s oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. Kolkata is known as the “cultural capital of India” .
Chennai or firmly known as Madras. It is the capital of Tamil Nadu India. It is famous for its beach and humid weather. Marina beach is the beach here . Chennai population is about 46 lakhs. The city together with the adjoining regions constitutes the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. The traditional and de facto gateway of South India, Chennai is among the most-visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked the 43rd-most visited city in the world for the year 2015 and was ranked the 36th-most visited city in the world for the year 2019.
Hyderabad is a city which is located in the Telangana state of India. It is popular for its “Biryani” ( an indian dish). Its population is about 68 lakhs ( as per 2011 census). Hyderabad is the capital of southern India’s Telangana state. A major center for the technology industry, it’s home to many upscale restaurants and shops. Its historic sites include Golconda Fort, a former diamond-trading center that was once the Qutb Shahi dynastic capital. The Charminar, a 16th-century mosque whose 4 arches support towering minarets, is an old city landmark near the long-standing Laad bazaar.
Ahmedabad is one of the famous city in India. It is the capital of Gujarat state in india. Ahmedabad is famous for its newly made Narendra Modi cricket stadium which is world’s largest cricket stadium. It is the administrative headquarters of the Ahmedabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. Ahmedabad’s population of 5,633,927 (as per 2011 population-census) makes it the fifth-most populous city in India, and the encompassing urban agglomeration population estimated at 6,357,693 is the seventh-most populous in India. Ahmedabad is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River, 23 km (14 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.
Bangalore is also known as the silicon city of India. It is also IT Hub of India. It is the capital city of Karnataka India. It is also second biggest city in terms of land. It’s population is about 84 lakhs.A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Bangalore either the fourth or fifth-most productive metro area of India. Bangalore is home to 7,700 millionaires and 8 billionaires with a total wealth of $320 billion.
Delhi is the capital of India. It is a metropolitan city. It is also known as the green city of India. It is the second most populated city in India. It is biggest city in terms of land in India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index. Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India. Delhi is of great historical significance as an important commercial, transport, and cultural hub, as well as the political centre of India.
Mumbai is the most populated city in India. It is also the most wealthiest city in India. It’s population is about 1.2 crores.Mumbai is the centre of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the sixth most populous metropolitan area in the world with a population of over 23 million. Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India.
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Top 10 Best Painters Of All Time
Painting is an art and this form of art is mastered by only a few people, this makes it a very important yet difficult skill. A painting challenges your entire point of view and widens your perspective and the way you see the world. So today we are going to list the top 10 best painters and their paintings of all time. These paintings will mesmerize you and you’ll definitely gonna love them.
Leading Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne has enjoyed a lasting legacy thanks to his innovative approach to perspective, vivid color palette, and use of painterly brushstrokes that were meticulously arranged into geometric forms
From bringing his easel out of the studio and into the environment to his landmark studies of time and light, Claude Monet is perhaps the most beloved of all Impressionist painters.
TAMARA DE LEMPICKA
Polish artist Tamara de Lempicka was a superstar of the early 20th century. Rubbing elbows with the avant-garde in Paris, she turned away from Impressionism—the popular style of the time—and focused on blazing her own trail.
Her highly intimate series of self-portraits and the embracement of her cultural heritage are just some of the things that make Frida Kahlo one of the greatest painters of the 20th century. Today she has become a pop culture icon, but this shouldn’t overshadow her great skill as a painter and her innovations in bringing Mexican culture to a wider audience.
American painter Jackson Pollock is best known for his innovative painting technique. By dripping paint on the canvas, the Abstract Expressionist created dynamic, abstract artwork that revolutionized the art scene.
VINCENT VAN GOGH
Though he is seen today as one of the most influential painters in Western art, Vincent van Gogh was not commercially successful during his lifetime. Since the early 20th century, however, his masterful paintings have been prized for their expressive emotion.
British Romantic painter JMW Turner is known as a forerunner of modern art. Coming from traditional Neo-classical painting, Turner began striving for realism in his work—which was unheard of at the time.
Rembrandt van Rijn is so famous that even today we call this Dutch master by his first name. Painting everything from genre scenes to landscapes to great historical and mythological paintings, Rembrandt was the dominant force in Dutch art for much of the 17th century. His masterful use of light, as well as his refined and expressive approach to painting, have made him a favorite amongst art lovers to this day.
This powerhouse of Baroque painting is also one of the first female artists to see great success. She was also young and producing professional art by the age of 15. Through the course of the 17th century, Artemisia Gentileschi created dynamic and explosive paintings that feature her trademark chiaroscuro and rich colors.
LEONARDO DA VINCI
Not only did Leonardo da Vinci experiment with mediums, but he also innovated different ways of creating striking compositions. In fact, his signature triangular composition is still used today and is widely considered one of the most visually pleasing painting layouts. He was also an early advocate of studying anatomical models to perfect his art, something that was illegal at the time.
So these were the top 10 painters and their paintings. If you liked this list then also read more amazing lists by clicking here.
Top 10 Places in Mount Abu
Mount Abu is a hill station in the western Indian state of Rajasthan, near the Gujarat border. Based on a high mountainous plateau in the Aravalli Range and covered by trees it offers reasonably cool weather and viewpoints over the arid plains below. As Rajasthan’s only hill station, it has been a common refuge for people seeking to escape the sizzling desert sun.
The Dilwara temples, located about 3 kilometers from Mount Abu, were primarily constructed between the 11th and 13th centuries AD by Vastupal and Tejpal. Covered by lush trees and bushes and elevated above the nearby neighborhoods, these temples are world-renowned for their spectacular use of marble – many tourists find them to be architecturally comparable to the Taj Mahal. All including the doors to the ceilings and pillars is elaborately crafted – at one point, the marble ceiling is so beautifully detailed that it’s almost translucent.
As previously noted Guru Shikhar is the highest peak in both Mt Abu and the whole Aravalli Range. It is the home of Mt Abu places to visit, with a breathtaking sight of the mountains and the entire area. The Guru Dattatreya temple is also a highlight, with idols of the Hindu Gods Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu. You can also visit Peace Park and go hiking or trekking there.
Boating on the magnificent Nakki lake, which is surrounded by hills on all sides, is a joyful experience. This is India’s first artificial lake built at a height of more than 1200 meters above sea level. The Nakki Lake is regarded as one of the region’s most scenic and important sites. The surrounding gardens are the big draw here.
Achalgarh is a historical site that exudes the magnificence of a bygone age It was a kingdom founded by the Paramara Dynasty’s rulers. In the 15th century, Maharana Kumbha, the ruler of Mewar, built the Achalgarh Fort. The name Achalgarh means “immovable fort.” You can go hiking or visit the Mahadev Temple and other Jain temples here.
The spectacular sunsets that can be seen from Mount Abu are one of its most notable highlights. If there is something you can call stunning, it is this spot, which is beloved by almost every visitor and passenger. Enjoy the breathtaking scenery or plan a picnic while you’re there.
Achaleshwar Mahadev Temple
Though we have already listed the Achalgarh Fort, it is also worth considering this temple nearby. It has a spontaneously existing Shivlinga in its ancient infrastructure. This is one of the region’s oldest temples. Aside from the design, you can get a spectacular view of the city from here.
Trevor’s Tank is an artificial crocodile tank situated about 5 kilometers from Mount Abu. It is a famous picnic spot, and visitors find it pleasant as well. Since the region is surrounded by trees, you might be able to do some animal and bird viewing here.
Universal peace hall
The Universal Peace Hall, also recognized as Om Shanti Bhavan, is the central assembly hall at Brahma Kumari Spiritual University, which was established in 1983. The majestic white structure has a passenger capacity of 5,000 people and the ability to translate in 16 languages at the same time during different events. The beautiful hall was designated as a public tourist attraction, and over 8,000 people attend it regularly.
Gaumukh temple has a holy 700-stair climb that provides a scenic sight of the nearby valley as well as spiritual pilgrimages and contemplation during the year. In Hindu mythology, the enigmatic water stream flowing from the mouth of the marble bull is devoted to Nandi, the holy bull of Lord Shiva.
The people of this area believe in Lord Raghunath, to whom this temple is devoted. This big religious destination for tourists is situated near Nakki Lake. Since visiting this shrine, the traveller seems to be free of all pains and pangs.
Top 10 Facts about Mughal Empire
The Mughals’ splendour may be seen in our buildings, literature, gastronomy, and virtually anything else. This article gives data on all entertaining, fantastic, unusual, and undiscovered intriguing facts about the Mughal Empire and its emperors.This article also aims to highlight positive and bad details and data regarding mughal empires, mughal empire conflicts and fights, architecture, and their monuments.
Foundation of Mughal Empire
Babur created the foundations of the Mughal empire after his triumph over Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526. Babur’s ancestors were Turko-Mongols. On his father’s side, he was a legitimate descendant of Timur of the Timurid dynasty, and on his mother’s side, he was a direct ancestor of Genghis Khan of the Mongol Empire.
Second Biggest Kingdom
The Mughal empire was the second biggest kingdom in Indian history, after the Mauryan empire, at its apex. The Mughal empire spanned four million square kilometres at its peak, while the Mauryan empire spanned five million square kilometres at its peak.
The Persian language was utilised by the Mughals for governmental and court business. Clerics of the court employed the Arabic language for religious affairs, including various rites. Chagatai Turkic was the spoken language of the first few Mughal kings. Following that, Mughal emperors used hindustani as their verbal language.
The Mughals painted in a style that was influenced by Indian and Persian art. Art blossomed in the Mughal Empire during the reigns of Akbar, Shah Jahan, and Jahangir. Hamzanama, Nizami’s Khamsa, and Darab Nama are some of his most famous works.
Mughals were the first to introduce gunpowder to the Indian subcontinent. Babur, although being outmanned by Ibrahim Lodi, won the first fight of Panipat convincingly, thanks in large part to the employment of gunpowder. Only three rulers in mediaeval global history were adept in the usage of gunpowder at the moment: the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid rulers of Persia, and the Mughal rulers.
Most Wealthy King in Mughal Empire
Akbar’s reign (1556-1605) is regarded as the most wealthy in the Mughal empire’s history. The Mughal empire’s geographic expansions were cemented by Akbar. During Akbar’s rule, the arts, culture, society, and economy prospered, as did religious tolerance. Akbar abolished the Jazia tax, which had been enforced on non-Muslims by previous Mughal emperors.
Most brutal king
Aurangzeb was regarded as one of the Mughal Empire’s most brutal, brutal, and religiously oppressive monarchs. During this time, the majority of Hindu temples were dismantled. The ninth Sikh leader, Guru Teg Bahadur, was openly murdered by command of Aurangzeb for declining to adopt to Islam.
India’s economy was well throughout the Mughal Empire. Large variety of staple food crops were cultivated. Cotton, indigo, oil seeds, sugarcane, and other cash crops were also widely planted. In the 17th century, two new crops, tobacco and maize, were introduced by subsequent mughal emperors. Potatoes and red chiles were first cultivated in the 18th century, most likely around the conclusion of the Mughal period.
Mughal Emperor Akbar ruled for the longest time. His reign lasted 18,157 days, from 11 February 1556 to 27 October 1605. Aurangzeb is the second longest ruling emperor. Aurangzeb ruled from July 31, 1658, until March 3, 1707, a total of 17,748 days. Shah Alam II was the third longest reigning Mughal emperor, reigning from December 10, 1759, to November 19, 1806.
Horses in army
The Mughals continued to use horses in their army. Animals, like warriors, were armoured on the majority of their bodies. Guns were even installed on some camels. For instance, the zamburak was a camel with a fixed swivel gun affixed on its back.
Top 10 Facts about Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus River Valley Civilization, also recognized as the Harappan Civilization, lasted from 3300 to 1300 BCE and spanned contemporary northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Normalized weights and scales, seal carving, and metallurgy with copper, bronze, lead, and tin were all essential inventions of this civilization. Nothing is certain about the Indus language, and as a consequence, little is learned about the structures and governmental structures of the Indus River Valley Civilization. This work led to the the first excavations in the early 20th century at Harappa by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, and by R.D. Banerji at another Indus Civilization city, Mohenjo Daro. Weather change and displacement are most likely to blame for the civilization’s demise. Let us decode this ancient civilization to learn about India’s history.
Both Indus Valley towns were categorized into Upper Town and Lower Town, just as the French split Pondicherry (India) in two in the 18th century: White Town and Black Town. The upper town was for traders and nobles, while the lower town was for commoners. All of the roads and routes in IVC were straight and intersected at a 90-degree angle. Houses were built in a variety of, types and sizes possibly to reflect social structure. Many of the IVC sites had buildings with single, double, and multiple spaces.
It was a fortification, but not quite a fortification. Since only six citadels have been discovered, it appears that some governing or priesthood class existed there. One curious fact is that every sixth of them was discovered on the city’s upper floor. A citadel, on the other hand, does not imply the presence of a king.
The Great Bath at Mohenjodaro resembled a contemporary swimming pool. It was a rectangular building with stairwells leading within. Surprisingly, there were three showers by the Great Bath. It demonstrates that they were possibly worried about sanitation.
Mohenjodaro has one of the largest granaries among IVC locations. Granaries could be found at almost any IVC location. Rice, wheat, and barley were the most commonly stored foods. It was most likely a public distribution system designed to disperse food grains during disasters, as the Indus River was prone to flooding.
The Indus people were more interested in nature devotion They hated all that scared them and therefore worshipped. Some of the sites had drawings of the sun and moon, implying that they were Sabians. They also prayed to snakes, pigeons, and other creatures. It seems that they had high respect for humped bulls, as both houses had a seal of it.
The Indus or Harappan script has 400 pictograph signs in total. No one else has been able to decode the book, and from the way it is published, it appears they were familiar with geometry. It is a brief overview of the great Indus Valley Civilization. They have established a tradition that can still be replicated.
Evidence suggests that Harappans were involved in a large maritime—sea—trade system that stretched from Central Asia to the Middle East. The civil economy appears to have relied heavily on trade, which was encouraged by substantial developments in transportation technology. The Harappan Civilization may have been the first to use wheeled movement in the form of oxcarts, which are still used in South Asia today.
Extraction of the Indus Valley Civilization sites is continuing, and by 1999, 1,056 cities and villages had been discovered. IVC thrived in the basins of two large rivers: the Indus and the Ghaggar-Hakra. It is the oldest of the four ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China, covering a region about the size of Western Europe.
Indus valley civilization cities had the earth’s first municipal sewage schemes. Both houses had bathing facilities and drainage systems that discharged into larger public drains and accumulated fertile sludge on farm areas. Some homes also had the world’s earliest recorded flush toilets. The majority of the buildings had personal wells, and there was a comprehensive water management system with several reservoirs.
Many scholars believe that the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization was caused by climate change. Some experts believe the drying of the Saraswati River, which began around 1900 BCE, was the main cause for climate change, while others conclude that a great flood struck the area.
Top 10 Facts about Indian Flag
The national flag represents a country’s social, economic, and political values. A country’s national flag is a source of national pride. It carries the ideals on which the nation’s very base is built. The Indian National Flag is extremely important to the people of India and holds great spiritual significance for them. It is the roof under which the spirit of nationalism and patriotism thrives. It is an emblem of national pride and reflects the hopes and aspirations of its people. It is not just a piece of cloth, but a sense of dignity that drives soldiers to risk their lives just to keep it floating high in the sky. The late Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru described it as “not only a flag of freedom for ourselves but a sign of freedom for all citizens.” So, Here are some interesting facts about our Tiranga:
Pingali Venkayya, an Andhra Pradesh freedom fighter and farmer, designed the Indian National Flag.
The Indian flag was adopted on July 22, 1947, just two days before India’s independence from Britain on August 15, 1947.
The first Indian flag featured religious symbols and eight roses, with the words Vande Matram in the middle. It was made up of three horizontal green, yellow, and red stripes. It was unveiled on August 7, 1906, in Parsi Bagan Square in Kolkata.
Saffron represents bravery and sacrifice, while white represents fact, harmony, and purity. The green color of the flag signifies wealth, while the Ashok Chakra represents the Dharma Laws (righteousness).
The middle stripe in the center features a navy blue pattern of an Ashoka Chakra with 24 evenly spaced spokes.
The Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission owns the right to produce the flag, which it distributes to regional parties.
Tenzing Norgay raised the Indian national flag for the first time on Mount Everest on May 29, 1953.
The Supreme Court of India changed the flag code in 2002, granting all people the freedom to hoist the flag at any time under the flag code.Before 2002, ordinary Indian citizens were not permitted to hoist the National Flag except on Independence and Republic Days.
According to the flag code, the flag must be flown throughout the day and no other flag or symbolic representation should be flown above it.
The very first Indian to lift the flag on foreign soil was Bhikaji Rustom Cama.
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- 9 Must-see Museums In New York City
- Top 10 Best Indian Hindi Songs
- Top 10 Blues Songs Of All Time
- Top 10 Best Rappers of All Time
- Top 10 Modern Bands
- Top 10 Most Rated Bucket List Destinations
- Top 10 Best Cheap Places to Travel in July
- Top 10 Best Luxury All-Inclusive Resorts in the World
- Top 10 Highest Paying Jobs In India
- Top 10 Deadliest Terrorist Attacks in the World